A. PRODUCER: INTERACTION OF CONTENT, CONTEXT, AND INTENTION
B. RECEIVER: HOW IS “INFORMATION” PROCESSED/NEGOTIATED/CIRCULATED?
C. THROUGH THIS, GETTING TO A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF “REAL NEWS” V. “FAKE NEWS”, NOT AS CONTENT BUT AS POLITICAL/SOCIAL PROCESS
II. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: “PROPAGANDA”
A. THE ORIGINS
1572-1627: THE POPES (GREGORY XIII, GREGORY XV, AND URBAN VIII) AND PROPAGATING THE FAITH
REFORMATION V. COUNTER-REFORMATION
“Don’t frighten us Pope, with your ban, and don’t be such a furious man. Otherwise we shall turn around and show you our rears.”
Shakespeare, Richard III: “And thus I clothe my naked villainy/With odd old ends stol’n out of holy writ/
And seem a saint, when most I play the devil.”
B. THE “MASS”
“INFORMATION” AND THE MAKING OF THE NATION
C. THE 20TH CENTURY STATE/REGIME
“Now We Will Take Rigorous Steps”, Germany 1933
D. THOUGHTS? NOT “TRUE” OR “FALSE” THAT MATTERS HERE — IT’S CONSTRUCTION, PERCEPTION, AND RECEPTION
III. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: “POLITICAL WARFARE”
A. THE WORLD WAR I PRECEDENT
The Lusitania Medal
B. WORLD WAR II/COLD WAR ESTABLISHMENT
The Political Warfare Executive
NSC 68: “We must make ourselves strong, both in the way in which we affirm our values in the conduct of our national life, and in the development of our military and economic strength.”
C. THOUGHTS? “TOTAL CONFLICT”
IV. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: “PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS”
A. BERNAYS: “The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society.”
B. MILITARY PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS/INFORMATION OPERATIONS/HYBRID WARFARE
C. BEYOND THE MILITARY
D. THOUGHTS? FROM THE “MASS” TO THE “STATE” AND BACK AGAIN
V. SO…”FAKE NEWS” — THE OBJECTIVITY ISSUE
A. IS THERE AN “OBJECTIVE” IN INFORMATION?
B. THE CHALLENGE OF THE GATEKEEPER
C. “NEWS” IS SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED
D. “FAKE NEWS” IS NOT THE DISSEMINATION OF THE FAKE….
AS MUCH AS IT IS THE EXPLOITATION OF THESE ISSUES FOR THE DESTABILISATION OF THE “REAL”
VI. ENTER DISINFORMATION AS “REAL”
A. Disinformation: “A deliberate attempt to create false impressions among the general public through the creation and repetition of lies, conspiracy theories or other falsehoods”
B. But this has to be based on a perception opened up by instability of the “real”
C. The 9-11 Example
D. The NHS Battle Bus
VII. SO WHAT IS TO BE DONE?
A. MONEY: PUNISHMENT/INCENTIVE?
C. LET’S TAKE IT BACK TO THE BEGINNING: THE ESSENTIAL OF “LITERACY”, THE NEGOTIATION OF RELIABILITY, THE POWER OF NETWORKS